What are the leashold regulations in Thailand?

In Thailand, leasehold regulations are governed primarily by the Civil and Commercial Code and specific acts related to land and property. Here's a detailed overview:

Leasehold Tenure

  1. Lease Duration:

    • For residential properties, the maximum lease period is 30 years.
    • For commercial or industrial purposes, leases can be up to 50 years.
    • It is possible to renew leases for additional periods of up to 30 or 50 years, depending on the type of lease.
  2. Registration:

    • Leases longer than three years must be registered with the Land Department.
    • If the lease is not registered, it is only enforceable for three years.

Rights and Obligations

  1. Lessee Rights:

    • Lessees have the right to occupy and use the property as agreed upon in the lease contract.
    • Lessees may sublease, transfer, or mortgage their leasehold interest, but these actions typically require the lessor's consent unless otherwise specified in the lease agreement.
  2. Lessor Rights:

    • Lessors retain ownership of the property and can impose conditions on its use.
    • Lessors can terminate the lease if the lessee breaches significant terms of the contract, such as non-payment of rent.

Foreign Ownership

  1. Foreign Individuals and Entities:
    • Foreigners cannot own land in Thailand but can lease land for up to 30 years.
    • Foreigners can own buildings on leased land, but the lease and the building ownership must be registered separately.

Key Considerations

  1. Lease Agreements:

    • Lease agreements should be detailed and specify all terms, including rent, duration, renewal options, and the responsibilities of both parties.
    • Legal advice is recommended to ensure the lease agreement complies with Thai law and protects the interests of both parties.
  2. Renewal Clauses:

    • Renewal options must be clearly stated in the lease agreement.
    • Renewals are not automatic; they must be mutually agreed upon and registered with the Land Department.
  3. Taxes and Fees:

    • Both the lessee and the lessor may be subject to taxes and fees related to the lease.
    • It's important to understand and plan for these financial obligations.

Important Legal Provisions

  1. Land Code Act B.E. 2497 (1954):

    • Governs land ownership and use, including leases.
    • Specifies that leases exceeding three years must be registered.
  2. Investment Promotion Act B.E. 2520 (1977):

    • Allows for longer lease periods (up to 50 years) for certain types of investment projects approved by the Board of Investment (BOI).
  3. Commercial and Industrial Leasehold Property Act B.E. 2542 (1999):

    • Provides regulations for leaseholds specifically for commercial and industrial purposes, allowing up to 50-year leases.


Leasing property in Thailand involves understanding specific legal frameworks and ensuring compliance with local laws. It's essential to draft comprehensive lease agreements, seek legal advice, and register the lease with the Land Department for long-term leases.